Hematuria or blood in the urine is a common reason why someone visits a urologist.

Gross Hematuria

If blood in the urine is visible then it is termed gross hematuria.

Microscopic Hematuria

If blood is only detected on a urine test – such as a urinalysis or a urine dipstick – then it is termed microscopic hematuria.

patient with hematuria discussing hematuria treatment options with doctor

Causes of Blood in the Urine

Some of the common causes of blood in the urine include:

  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Bladder or kidney infection
  • Kidney stones
  • Kidney disease
  • Enlarged prostate or prostate cancer
  • Trauma to the kidney
  • Malignancies of the urinary tract (bladder, kidney or prostate)
  • Medications such as blood thinners like Coumadin, aspirin, penicillin, heparin, cyclophosphamide and phenazopyridine

Diagnosing Hematuria

Evaluation for hematuria usually includes:

  • Initial or repeat urinalysis and culture
  • Urine cytology
  • CT scan
  • Kidney ultrasound
  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) – X-ray of urinary tract
  • Cystoscopy
  • Kidney renal biopsy

Treatment for Hematuria

The treatment for hematuria will depend on the underlying cause, determined by exam and tests.